George. C. & Liew, S. (2021) Red Lines: Political Cartoons and the Struggle against Censorship. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

George, C. & Low, D. (2020) PAP v. PAP: The Party’s Struggle to Adapt to a Changing Singapore. Singapore: Self-Published.

George, C. (2020). Air-Conditioned Nation Revisited: Essays on Singapore Politics. Singapore: Ethos Books.

George, C. & Gayathry, V. (2019). Media and Power in Southeast Asia. Cambridge University Press.

George, C. (2017). Singapore, Incomplete: Reflections on a First World Nation’s Arrested Political Development. Singapore: Woodsville News.

George, C. (2016). Hate Spin: The Manufacture of Religious Offence and its Threat to Democracy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

George, C. (2012). Freedom From The Press: Journalism and State Power in Singapore. Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.

George, C. (2006). Contentious Journalism and the Internet: Towards Democratic Discourse in Malaysia and Singapore. Singapore University Press and University of Washington Press.

George, C. (2000). Singapore: The Air-conditioned Nation. Essays on the Politics of Comfort and Control, 1990-2000. Singapore: Landmark Books. (Full text available free of charge via Stanford Digital Repository.)


George, C. and K.H. Youm (Guest Editors) (2022). Special Issue — Media freedom in Asia: challenges from below. Asian Journal of Communication, 32(3).

George, C. (Editor) (2017). Communicating with Power. International Communication Association Theme Book Series. New York: Peter Lang.

George, C. (Editor) (2008). Free Markets, Free Media? Reflections on the political economy of the press in Asia. Singapore: Asian Media Information and Communication Centre.


George, C. and K.H. Youm (2022). “Media freedom in Asia: challenges from below.” Asian Journal of Communication, 32(3): 194-199.

Zeng, Y. & C. George (2022). “The Ghosts of Newspapers Past: Public Interest Journalism as Movement.” International Journal of Communication, 16.

George, C. (2020). “What Global Censorship Studies Tell us About Hong Kong’s Media Future.” Global Media Journal – German Edition, 10(2).

George, C., Y. Zeng & S. Mazumdar. (2019). “Navigating conflicts of interest: Ethical policies of 12 exemplary Asian media organisations.” Journalism.

George, C. (2019). “Journalism in a climate of hate.” Journalism 20 (1): 106–109.

George, C. (2018). “Disinformation and Hate Campaigns.” Asian Jurist. Issue 3, October: 28–35.

George, C. (2017). “Hate spin: the twin political strategies of religious incitement and offense-taking.” Communication Theory 27 (2): 156–175. doi:10.1111/comt.12111.

George, C. (2016). “Regulating ‘Hate Spin’: The Limits of Law in Managing Religious Incitement and Offense.” International Journal of Communication 10: 2955-2972

George, C. (2016). “Managing Religious Diversity in Southeast Asia: How Insult Laws Backfire.” City University of Hong Kong Southeast Asia Research Centre Working Paper Series 175.

George, C. (2014). “Journalism and the Politics of Hate: Charting Ethical Responses to Religious Intolerance.” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 29 (2): 74-90.

Hao, X., N. Wen and C George (2014). “News consumption and political and civic engagement among young people.” Journal of Youth Studies,

George, C. (2013). “Diversity around a democratic core: The universal and the particular in journalism.” Journalism: Theory, Practice and Criticism 14 (4): 490-503.

Hao, X., C. George and S. Cong (2013). “Professional aspirations, newsroom culture and social context.” Media Asia 40 (1): 73-84.

George, C. (2011). “Beyond Professionalization: A Radical Broadening of Journalism Education.” Journalism & Mass Communication Educator 66 (3): 258-267.

George, C. (2009). “Putting Citizens Back Into Journalism.” Media Asia 36 (1): 12-13.

George, C. and R. Raman (2008). “When big media meet ‘we’ media in Singapore.” Australian Journalism Review 30 (2): 61-73. 

George, C. (2008). “Debate: Values-driven journalism.” Journalism Studies 9 (1): 128-131.

George, C. (2007). “Media in Malaysia: Zone of Contention.” Democratization 14 (5): 893-910.

George, C. (2007). “Consolidating Authoritarian Rule: Calibrated Coercion in Singapore.” The Pacific Review 20 (2): 127-145.

George, C. (2007). “Credibility Deficits: Why Some News Media don’t Pay the Price.” Journalism Studies 8 (6): 898-908.

George, C. (2005). “The Internet’s Political Impact and the Penetration/Participation Paradox in Malaysia and Singapore.” Media Culture & Society 27 (6): 903-920.

George, C. (2005). “Calibrated coercion and the maintenance of hegemony in Singapore.” Asia Research Institute Working Papers Series 48.

George, C. (2003). “The Internet’s Political Impact and the Penetration/Participation Paradox in Malaysia and Singapore.” Asia Research Institute Working Papers Series 14.

George, C. (2003). “The Internet and the Narrow-Tailoring Dilemma for ‘Asian’ Democracies.” Communication Review 6 (3): 247-268.

Tay, S.S.C. & C. George (1996). “Asian Media and Elections: Frameworks in Human Rights and Media Systems.” Asian Journal of Communication 6 (2): 9-29.


George, C. (2022). “Media Freedom and Censorship under Post-Orwellian Authoritarianism”, pp. 335–357 in H. Ful and M. Hor (eds.), The National Security Law of Hong Kong: Restoration and Transformation. Hong Kong University Press.

George, C., J. I. Chong and S. Ang. (2022). “The State of Academic Freedom in Singapore’s World-Beating Universities” in D. Gueorguiev (ed.), New Threats to Academic Freedom in Asia. Columbia University Press.

George, C. (2021). “All the news that’s fit to print. Except for cartoons. Those things are scary” in K. Chadha and L. Steiner (eds.), Newswork and Precarity. Routledge.

George, C. (2021). “Dark Side of People Power: Populism and the News Media” in News in Asia. Judith Nielson Institute.

George, C. (2021). “Hate Propaganda”, in H. Tumber and S. Waisbord (eds.) The Routledge Companion to Media Disinformation and Populism. Abingdon: Routledge.

George, C. (2020). “The Scourge of Disinformation-Assisted Hate Propaganda”, pp. 145–52 in M. Zimdars and K. McLeod (eds.), Fake News: Understanding Media and Misinformation in the Digital Age.  Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

George, C. (2019). “Journalism and Authoritarian Resilience”, pp. 538–554 in K. Wahl-Jorgensen and T. Hanitzch (eds.) The Handbook of Journalism Studies (2nd edition). New York: Routledge.

George, C. (2019). “Asian Journalism”, pp. 1–13 in T.P. Vos and F. Hanusch (eds.). The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies. John Wiley & Sons, .

George, C. (2019). “Aligning Media Policy with Executive Dominance”, pp. 299–322 in L. Z. Rahim and M. Barr (eds.), The Limits of Authoritarian Governance in Singapore’s Developmental State, Singapore: Palgrave MacMillan.

George, C. (2019). “Singapore’s Emerging Informal Public Sphere”, pp. 1–12 in Institute of Policy Studies, Insights on Singapore’s Politics and Governance from Leading Thinkers, Singapore: World Scientific.

George C. (2018). “Journalism, Censorship and Press Freedom”, pp. 473–492 in T. P. Vos (ed.), Handbooks of Communication Science 19: Journalism, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

George C. (2018). “Neoliberal ‘Good Governance’ in Lieu of Rights: Lee Kuan Yew’s Singapore Experiment”, pp. 114–130 in M. Price and N. Stremlau (eds.), Speech and Society in Turbulent Times: Freedom of Expression in Comparative Perspective, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

George, C. (2017). “Dealing with demagoguery and hate propaganda in an age of unreason”, pp. 215–232 in C George (ed.) Communicating with Power. International Communication Association Theme Book Series. New York: Peter Lang.

George, C. (2016). “Legal Landmines and OB Markers: Survival Strategies of Alternative Media”, pp. 29-48 in T. H. Tan, A. Mahizhnan & P. H. Ang (eds.) Battle for Hearts and Minds: New Media and Elections in Singapore. Singapore: World Scientific.

George, C. (2015). “Asia: Media Systems”, pp. 33-35 in W. Donsbach (ed.) The Concise Encyclopedia of Communication. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

George, C. (2015). “Hate speech law and policy”, in R. Mansell, P.H. Ang, C. Steinfeld, S. van der Graaf, P. Ballon, A. Kerr, J.D. Ivory, S. Braman, D. Kleine, D.J. Grimshaw (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. DOI: 10.1002/9781118767771.wbiedcs139.

George, C., X. Hao and N. Wen  (2014). “Social Media and Political Participation in Singapore”, pp. 168-188 in L. Willnat & A. Aw (eds.), Social Media, Culture and Politics in Asia. New York: Peter Lang.

George, C. (2013). “The Internet as a Platform for Civil Disobedience”, pp. 385-395 in J. Hartley, J. Burgess & A. Bruns (eds.), A Companion to New Media Dynamics. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

George, C. (2013). “Why Singapore Journalists Don’t Press for Legal Reform”, pp. 45-59 in Andrew T. Kenyon, T. Marjoribanks & A. Whiting (eds.) Democracy, Media and Law in Malaysia and Singapore: A Space for Speech. London: Routledge.

George, C. (2012). “Silence and Protest in Singapore’s Censorship Debates”, pp. 189-199 in N. Otmazgin & E. Ben-Ari (eds.), Popular Culture and the State in East and South-East Asia. Oxford, UK: Routledge. 

Hao, X.M. & C. George (2012). “Singapore Journalism: Buying into a Winning Formula”, pp. 91-103 in D. Weaver & L. Willnat (eds.), The Global Journalist in the 21st Century. Oxford, UK: Routledge.

George, C. (2011). “Internet Politics: Shouting Down the PAP”, pp. 145-160 in K. Y. L. Tan & T. Lee (eds.) Voting in Change: Politics of Singapore’s 2011 General Election. Singapore: Ethos Books.

George, C. (2011). “Alternative Media (Malaysia)”, pp. 20-24 in Downing, J. D. H. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Social Movement Media. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

George, C. (2010). “Control-Shift: The Internet and Political Change in Singapore”, in Chong, T. (ed.) Management of Success: Singapore Reassessed. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.

George, C. (2009). “Networked Autocracy: Consolidating Singapore’s Political System”, in M. C. Anthony (ed.) Political Change, Democratic Transitions and Security in Southeast Asia.London and New York: Routledge.

George, C. (2009). “No News Here: Media In Subordination”, pp. 444-450 in B. Welsh, J. Chin, A. Mahizhnan & T. H. Tan (eds.) Impressions of the Goh Chok Tong Years in Singapore. Singapore: NUS Press.

George, C. (2008). “History Spiked: Hegemony and the Denial of Media Diversity”, pp. 269-285 in M. Barr & C. Trocki (eds.) Paths Not Taken: Political Pluralism in Post-War Singapore. Singapore: NUS Press.

George, C. (2008). “Framing the Fight Against Terror: Order versus Liberty in Singapore and Malaysia”, pp. 139-155 in K. Sen & T. Lee (eds.) Political Regimes and the Media in Asia. London & New York: Routledge.

George, C. (2007). “Singapore’s Emerging Informal Public Sphere”, pp. 93-104 in T. Tan (ed.) Singapore Perspectives 2007. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.

George, C. (2006). “Asian Journalisms: Neglected Alternatives”, pp. 79-92 in X. Hao & S.K. Datta-Ray (eds.) Issues and Challenges in Asian Journalism. Singapore: Times Academic Press.

George, C. (2002). “Singapore: Media at the Mainstream and the Margins”, pp. 173-200 in Russell Heng (ed.), Media Fortunes, Changing Times: ASEAN States in Transition. Singapore: Institute of South East Asian Studies.

George, C. and H. Pillay (2000). “Media and Civil Society”, pp. 198-202 in G. Koh & G. L. Ooi (eds.) State-Society Relations in Singapore. Singapore: Oxford University Press.